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Growth Business Data
Michalina Leśniak
Digital Transformation Digital Advisory
Maciej Cieślukowski Emilia Adamek
People Values
Tomek Jurek
Digital Advisory Customer Experience Technology
Izabela Franke
Digital Advisory CX Strategy Retail
Jakub Nawrocki
Digital Transformation Retail
Paweł Wasilewski
Explore all insights

Featured Insights

Business Digital Advisory

How to Address Consumer Irrationality?

How to Address Consumer Irrationality?

Gallup research shows that companies using behavioral economics insights achieve an 85% higher sales growth and a 25% higher profit margin compared to organizations that don’t employ these tactics.

The ability to understand human behavior, emotions, and contexts when designing processes allows for better customization of services, products, and offerings. It also makes it possible to create a communication strategy based on what people value and how they actually act.

Consumers don't like to… think

“Thinking is to humans as swimming is to cats; they can do it, but they’d prefer not to,” quipped Daniel Kahneman, the Nobel Prize winner in 2002. When making decisions, we aren't rational beings that always weigh the pros and cons, calculate costs, and compute the value of lost benefits.

Instead, our memory is fallible, we’re influenced by context or emotions, and we like to cut corners. Homo economicus? Forget about it.

There’s the so-called theory of two information processing systems: System 1 – “fast thinking” and System 2 – “slow thinking.” The first one applies to 90% of the decisions we make.

It's automatic, impulsive, and unconscious, so it doesn't care about the consequences of our choices and doesn't easily change its mind. System 2, however, is where rational and analytical thinking reigns supreme, and humans typically engage it when the stakes are high.

Buying a car or a house? That's when System 2 comes into play. In such situations, it's essential to take advantage of product features, comparisons, and education when communicating with consumers. But for most everyday purchases, it's all about the form of communication – it should be attractive, emotional, distinctive, and, often, even funny.

Consumers are predictable

The fact that people are irrational and make quick, impulsive decisions can be attributed to four main reasons:

  • Information overload — when faced with too much information, people tend to focus on noticeable changes, repetitions, confirmations, and things that stand out.
  • Lack of information — in such situations, people tend to assume they’re right, they believe that easier means better, and think that what is closest is the best.
  • Limited memory capacity — it leads to simplification and generalization of information.
  • Limited understanding capabilities — people resort to using patterns and stereotypes to make sense of things.

To save resources, people cut corners and use strategies called heuristics to swiftly handle tasks and decision-making. There are hundreds of these heuristics identified, and they’re shared among all human beings as a species. Gaining a deeper understanding of these mechanisms helps us comprehend how people make various decisions, including purchasing ones.

Examples of heuristics

The Ikea effect

People tend to attribute disproportionately greater value to things they have created themselves, regardless of how good or bad the end result is. Experiments have shown that consumers rate the taste of a burger more positively (7/10) if they have assembled it themselves, compared to an identical one served ready-made (4/10). They’re also willing to pay more for the self-prepared burger.

The egocentrism effect

People have a tendency to focus on themselves and attribute more importance and agency to themselves than to others. This is particularly evident when analyzing the so-called cocktail party effect, which is the ability to hear one's own name in a crowd, even if someone isn’t speaking to us or about us. Companies leverage this effect by personalizing products and services or by simply communicating that something is “ours” (e.g., “See dresses in your size”).


This effect is based on associations, often unconscious, triggered by stimuli that may be unrelated to a specific situation. Research conducted by behavioral economists has shown that if vegetables and fruits are placed near the store entrance, consumers are likely to buy more of them compared to when they reach the shelves in other parts of the store.

Moreover, consumers who see fresh vegetables and fruits in their shopping baskets are more likely to buy unhealthy snacks as well (after all, they’re getting plenty of healthy items, so they deserve a cheat meal). That’s not the end. Our irrational human brains make us think that a bank employee wearing a tie is more competent than an employee without a tie. Consequently, we’re more willing to discuss risky investment options with the first specialist.


Loss aversion

People are more likely to act when faced with the fear of losing something rather than the prospect of gaining something. The Australian airline Qantas, after deciding to no longer serve unappetizing sandwiches (which were objectively disliked and received poor ratings from customers), experienced a notable decline in satisfaction ratings and achieved their lowest-ever Net Promoter Score (NPS).

Surprisingly, the absence of those universally disliked sandwiches caused customers to form negative opinions about the company’s services, flight punctuality, and various other aspects that had no direct connection to the snacks.

Herd mentality

People have a tendency to follow others in their footsteps, especially when they don't know what to think or how to behave. In 1994, when Red Bull decided to introduce their energy drink to the market, they took advantage of this effect by filling trash cans in London with empty beverage cans. The full trash cans and the fact that DJs were drinking the new product (receiving it for free) made it easy to infer that it was popular.

Today, we can observe similar strategies when looking at online stores and notifications informing potential buyers how many people are currently viewing a particular item or have just purchased it.

In-group bias

People have a tendency to favor their own social group and strongly identify with it, even if the group has been made up, or it’s not objectively clear if they truly belong to it. One hotel conducted research to find a way to reduce towel exchange requests.

When the hotel communicated the standard message about saving water and energy, only 16% of guests decided not to exchange their towels. But when a new message was introduced, stating that 75% of guests in a particular room had already reused their towels, an impressive 44% of participants adjusted their behavior accordingly. They started to identify themselves as part of the group, even though it might sound a bit abstract.

These are just a few mechanisms that illustrate how consumers make decisions. As these tactics are so universal, paying attention to behavioral economics can change the way services, products, and communication strategies are designed.

If you want consumers to make decisions really quickly, you shouldn’t disrupt their natural rhythm. Poor design provokes thought! But, there are certain situations when people need to be more rational, and proper design can also help you achieve the goal. For example, making someone feel watched will trigger that person to be more careful and avoid making impulsive decisions.

How to design effective communication?

The Behavioral Insights Team from the United Kingdom has developed the EAST model, which can serve as an excellent guide for anyone responsible for consumer communication. It’s especially useful when combined with the knowledge about cognitive biases and heuristics used by people.


  • If you want people to do something – tell them directly what to do.
  • If you want people to make a choice – make it the easiest possible choice for them.
  • If you want to promote something  – limit the number of arguments, facts, and attributes.
  • If something is complicated – break it down into smaller parts that are easier (to understand or accomplish).


  • If you want people to notice something – make it stand out from the crowd through colors, images, or personalization. (Note: blurry photos or handwriting can be clear and expressive.)


  • If you want people to use something new – show them that others are already using it.
  • If you want people to do the right thing – communicate social norms.
  • If you want your message to have an impact – choose the right “messenger” (someone liked, someone with authority, someone similar to your consumers.)


  • If you want people to pay attention to your communication – identify moments when they’re more receptive (consider their level of excitement, fatigue, or specific life situations when they may actively seek information).

Behavioral economics in projects

Working with the mechanics and tactics of behavioral economics requires a structured approach, in which:

  • the problem is clearly defined,
  • we understand and know the starting point and the desired end result,
  • we identify all the opportunities and barriers that may impact the design of the desired behavior architecture,
  • we get rid of simple barriers that can affect the situation (e.g., broken links of e-commerce websites, or narrow aisles in physical stores that make it difficult to pass with a stroller),
  • we choose the mechanisms that will effectively drive the desired consumer behavior from various options that boost self-control (voluntarily or by influence), provide incentives, or discourage certain actions,
  • we design simple solutions that are quick to implement, scalable, and have a long-term impact,
  • we test the designed solutions,
  • we ensure that the project adheres to ethical principles and social responsibility.

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